Information technology

The first subject     

The second issue

Information technology

The previous studies

There are many authors wrote about information technology and its role in making decisions , some of those are Porter and Miller ( 1990 ) who regard that information technology can essentially influence business organizations from three aspects : changing and developing the industrial structure , creating new competitive abilities and attracting new jobs .

As for Balina ( 1995 ) and Odette ( 1998 ) , they confirm that information technology contribute in creating a base concerning the business foundations . It surpass other bases by its competitors , through revealing the identity of every activity and supporting basically every sector .The factors of its success can be summarized as following :

– Decreasing the cost of those activities that supposed to recur such as storing , sales , importation ,….etc .

– The possibility of distinction in products , goods , and services offered to the consumer .

– Increasing the coordination not only between the foundation divisions , but also between the foundation and the surrounding society .

– De Val ( 1997 ) think that the information technology has the ability for the adverse feedback not only in making the organizational structure for the business organization , but also for the flood of the processes resulting from its various processes , and this can be confined in the following points : determination , integration between the tasks , control , functional graduation , work groups , and training . Rosenberger (1998 ) confirms in his speech of information technology that information and information technology are fast , their costs are little , available in the foundations , distributed in sufficient content ,in limited groups and easy in use ,therefore, they are indeed able to support and increase the competitive ability of the foundation . Artill and Mclaney , in turn, think that information technology contributed not only in developing the managerial accounting , but also in operating this data in a manner that allow using modern means , cost systems , and more effective and qualified management through providing the possibility of making various analyses of the different aspects of activity ,which to a great degree facilitate preparing releasing more effective and detailed reports .

There are studies such as : Bakos (1991), Nygaard and Bjorn (1994), Bakos and  Treacy (1985), Claver and Gonzales (1999), Martinez (1999) , Ripolland and Aparisi (1999) illustrated that the use of modern information technology in business world has become urgent necessities in the recent time relying on its role as one of the fundamental sources for the decision maker , in addition of being one of the sources of long term competitive characteristics . we can conclude from these studies that the business foundation adopt the technical change and benefit from this by introducing modern technologies enable it to develop its competitive ability by invention and by developing modern products as a way to acclimate with the new needs of the customers , and thus , ensure its existence and its commercial expansion , for example, the business foundation should introduce operation technologies and modern management which contribute in increasing the competitive force of the foundations through decreasing the costs and increasing the quality of goods and services offered to the consumer ( see figure 1 ) .

Information technology :

The last time witnessed an unprecedented fast development in all life aspects and the more prominent development which distinguished our recent time is the dynamics that was defined by the technological scope , especially, the dynamics concerning the treatment and spreading of the information or what has been known as the  information technology .

Concepts about the technology :

The technology became playing  an important role in upgrading the economies of many countries .

1- The technology definition

The origin of technology is attributed to a Greece word consists of two syllables : Techno which means industrial operation and the second is Logos which means science or methodology , so in one word they became “ the science of industrial operation “  .[1] From the economic analysis it may be defined as “ a group of new knowledge , skills , and experiences that can be transformed into production part or used in producing , marketing , and distributing goods and services or used in generating productive organizational structures “ .[2]

The technology can also be defined as “ applying the procedures derived from the scientific research scientific experiences to solve the realistic problems, and here the technology not only means instruments places ,but also means the scientific and theoretical bases which aim to improve the human performance in the movement which is dealt with”[3] .

– Types of technology : The technology is classified on the basis of the following :

1-2- On the basis of the control degree we find the following :

2-1-1- The fundamental technology :

IT is the technology that possessed by most of the industrial foundations and characterized by so high degree of control .

2-1-2- Distinction technology :

This technology is possessed by one foundation or by limited number of industrial foundations and by which they are distinguished from the rest of their competitors .

2-2- On the basis of its subject there are :

2-2-1- Handling technology :

This technology is used in handling the flow of the resources , such as the handling applications and programs .

2-2-2- Design technology :

This technology is used in designing activities in the foundation ,such as designing by the computer assistance .

3-2-2- The technology of production method :

This technology is used in the manufacturing process , control and combination process .

4-2-2- The technology of communication and information :

It is used in treating and transforming facts and information .

3-2- On the basis of complication degree we find :

2-3-1- High degree technology :

It is strongly complicated technology which difficult to be exploited by national foundation in the developing countries without demand from the patentee .

2-3-2- The normal technology :

It is less complicated than the previous one , thus the specialists in the developing countries can comprehend it , but it is characterized by a huge investment costs .[4]

The conceptual frame of the information :   

The scientific development proceeded in its path and gave forward a strong impulse , thereby paved the way for appearing another new revolution , and that is the information revolution .

1- Information concept :

Before dealing with the concept of information we should deal with the concept of data to clear the confusion between both of them .

2- Data :

They are defined as “ a group of irregular facts which may be in the form of numbers , words , symbols not related to each other , that is ,      

                                 

they have no real meaning and no an effect on the behavior of whom receives them “ . [5]

They are defined also as : “ pure facts which have not been treated and they represent the raw materials “ .[6]

3- Information :

There are many definitions of information concept ,of which the most important are the following :

Defined by Wiig as : “ organized data and facts describe specific situation or specific problem ‘’ .[7] And defined by some specialists in handling as “ everything bears knowledge to us changes our point of view about things and diminishes our experience “ .[8] It is also defined as “ data treated in specific way starting from receiving data from their various sources , and then analyzing ,classifying ,and applying these data, until being sent to the concerned bodies “ .[9]

Information term is , on one hand , correlated with data term and with knowledge term , on the other hand , therefore, the knowledge is the final and the important outcome for using and investing the information by the decision makers and by the other users who transform information to knowledge and to continuous work that serves them and their societies. [10]

4- Figure ( 1-1 ) :

Development of the relationship between data , information , and knowledge .[11]   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The first subject

The third issue

Definition and importance of management

 

Definition of management “definition and importance”

Since the interest in studying the management  as a science that can be framed  has been started, various attempts occurred to define it . The management thinkers were divided into two schools 1, the creators of the first school analyzed the managerial work ,which carried out by managers , to functions and specific tasks on which they based their definitions , while the second focused on the nature of the management on which they based their definition .

Among the definitions of the first school are the following:

Taylor defined the management as “ the right knowledge of what supposed to be done by persons , then making sure that they do it in perfect way and cheapest costs “ .This definition focused on preparing , planning , and on determining the aims, then on directing and control , in addition the definition clarified two important points : the first is that works are carried out by others , and the second is that it is necessary to perform these works in qualified manner and indicated that the standard of qualification is to perform works in a perfect way and in the least costs .

 

Henry Fayoul defined the management as :

To manage is to forecast , to organize , to command , to coordinate, and control . And these are the recognized managerial functions .

Shildon defined the management in industry as ,the function that concerning the determination the project policies, coordinating between financing ,production and distribution, ratifying the organizational structure and the final control on the execution, and this restricted the definition to the industry field .[12]

And Jlofer defined it as the thinker force which analyze, describe, plans, motivates, evaluates and controls the perfect use of the human and  material resources that needed for achieving specific and known aim .

Oppositely ,in their definition of the management, the creators of the second school focused more on the nature of the management than on the managerial tasks and functions , the following are some of these definitions :

Livnjstoun defined it as the process of achieving the aim by the most  perfect means, convenient costs and in a convenient time .

And it is defined by Abli as the process of executing business by the efforts of other persons , and this includes two basic activities : planning and control .

 

 

 

Some others defined the management as :

Management is the process of optimizing human , material ,and contributions for the achievement of organization goals .

Summary of management definition :

The management can be defined as : “ the process of achieving the planned aims by exploiting the available resources , according to specific method and within specific environment “ .

This definition is general and comprehensive, and it can be applied on person and on organization , wither it is private or public . This definition includes the following elements :

  1. The aims : they are the results to be achieved , and here the will and the intention elements enter in exploiting the resources to achieve the desirable results .
  2. The resources : they include the human and the natural resources such as the earth and what are taken out from it , and capital resource with its various material and financial forms , so in order to be there a management , some resources have to be available . The resources , which can be controlled by their management , form the internal environment of the foundation .
  3. Methodology : it includes the use of all the managerial functions such as planning , organization , control , and decision making .
  4. Environment : there is no living being , wither it is natural person as individual or artificial person as the business foundation which classified as an open system , lives isolated and alone without influences or being influenced by the surrounding variables , so, the utility from the resources under control and achievement of the aims, react by relationships of two trends with the surrounding environment which can’t be controlled .

In spite of the comprehensiveness of this definition, and its identity on the management in the public and private organization, this book is mainly interested in studying and analyzing the management in the foundations and organizations of business which aim at achieving profit.

Functions of management :

The management performs basic functions of which the most important are : Planning, organization, directing, and control . Every function will be analyzed and discussed in detail in the following chapters of this book . The managerial functions will be the introduction which used in studying the management .

Foundation functions (1) :[13]

The foundation aims at producing and distributing the goods and services through carrying out basic integrated functions , the most important of these are the following three :

  1. Financing .
  2. Production .
  3. Marketing .

 

The detailing in these functions is based on many factors of which the most important are the foundation size , its products nature , its spreading and the philosophy of the management . we may also mention the following functions , which may be attached to the three main functions :

  1. individuals .
  2. sales .
  3. storing .
  4. information systems .
  5. The general relationships .

Every function from these will be analyzed and discussed deeply and in detail in the second part of the following chapters .

Managerial levels :

The managerial levels of the foundation differs according to many factors such as :

– The nature of the work and the products of the foundation : agricultural, industrial, or service .

– The foundation size and the extent of its geographical spread .

– The modernity extent in the work method and the used means of communication .

– management philosophy , aims , and ability .

– And other factors .

The book of management divides the levels of management to three levels which differ at several aspects in terms of authority , responsibility , and the degree of practicing the managerial functions , the levels are as follows :

These levels take the form of a pyramid as follows :

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reasons of not paying attention to management as a science :

The management has existed, as mentioned before, from ancient times but was known as a science only recently and the more important factors that contributed in hasn’t been perceived as a science are as the following :

 

 

  1. During the ancient and middle ages in Europe trade and trade work were regarded as a lowly works .[14],and this trend was consolidated by writers and philosophers who gave descriptions lessened the value of these works ,such as Aresto and the economical writer Adam Smith who described merchants ,in his book “wealth of nations” , as a group of swindlers whose interests don’t correspond with the national interests of the society, and this led to lack of perceiving management as a science that can be studied , and also made the political and economical thinkers refrain from management .
  2. Regarding the management as an art depends on personal talent , self ability, and not need to be studied .
  3. Taking an interest in the artistic and technique aspects of the project and increasing its technique ability .
  4. Decline of the competition intensity, and the large demand for the products .

* Reasons of paying attention to management as a science :

As for the most important factor which helped in paying attention to the importance of management is what known in the economical history as the industrial revolution ,[15]of which the most  important results are the following :

Substituting the human and the animal efforts for mechanical efforts .

 

  1. The huge size of business foundations and their shift to mass production .
  2. The huge size of the invested money in business foundations and appearance of public stock companies .
  3. Separation of ownership from management and an appearance of a class of professional managers in management .
  4. Expansion of the market in terms of the inputs and outputs and being restricted to local market .
  5. Complication, interlacement, and increasing of the environment within which the foundation works .
  6. Increasing the intensity of competition which resulted in : increasing the quality and quantity of the products with low costs , and thus decreasing their prices for the final consumer .

Then the informatics and electronic revolution came , after the second world war[16] which we still witness its influences and developments till this moment and which led to the development of many managerial concepts .

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

[1] Gassan Gassem Allami ,the technology management (concepts and introductions of the scientific application
technology) first edition ,Dar Almanahej , Amman , 2006 , p. 22 .

2 Noufil Hadid , internet technology and rehabilitating the foundation for merging in the world economy , thesis of state doctorate  faculty of economical and handling science , Algeria university , 2006/2007 ,p. 51-52 .

3 Ibrahim Dorra, human performance technology in organizations : the theoretical bases and their significations in the contemporary Arabic environment , publications of the Arabic organization for managerial development ,

Abd Albari , Cairo , 2003, p.26 .

[4]  Lamin Alloti , communication and information technology and its effect on improving the economical performance of the foundation , master notebook , (unpublished) , faculty of economical and handling sciences , business management , Algeria university , Algeria , 2003/ 2004 , p. 9-10 .

[5] Mohammad Abd Alalim Saber , managerial information systems , first edition , Dar Alfekr Ajameai , Alexandria , 2007 , p. 36 .

[6] Sherif Ahmad Alassi , managerial information systems , publisher and place of publishing ,2004, p. 28 .

[7] Mustafa Rebhi , information economy , first edition, Dar assafa , Amman, 2010, p. 102 .

[8] Yahia Idris , The role of making national system for the economical information in supporting decision makers , master notebook , (unpublished), faculty of economical and handling sciences , university of Mohammad Budyaf, in Massila, 2005, p. 30 ,handling and commercial sciences .

[9] Sherif Ahmad Alassi , managerial information systems, publisher and place of publication, 2004, p. 28 .

[10] Amer Ibrahim Gndilji , Ala Addin ajjnabi , information system and managerial information technology , third edition , Dar Almassira , Amman 2008 , p. 31 .

[11] The source : Amer Ibrahim Gndilji , Ala Addin Ajnabi , information systems and managerial information technology , third edition , Dar Almassira , Amman , p. 31 .

[12] – Taylor , Fredrick W . : principles of scientific management , New York, Harper & Brothers publishing Co., 1911 .

[13] Sometimes the foundation is expressed as organization , institution , or project and in general context these terms are used as synonyms , but sometime the meaning can be specialized for each one , here they will be used in the same meaning .

[14] This is opposite to the Islamic point of view which regards trade as honorable work . The Islam also encouraged trade and established its rules and principles .

[15] The industrial revolution started in…….with the invention of the steam machine in Britain .

[16] That is in the second half of the past century .

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احمد زين

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